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Posts Tagged ‘Pathology’

Tertiary syphilitic ulceration of the scalp [en]

tirsdag den 3. december 2013
Tertiary syphilitic ulceration of the scalp Tertiary syphilitic ulceration of the scalp

Black and white photographs of the head of a man aged 39 years, who had contracted syphilis 12 years previously. Photographs shows a view of the patient's head showing the tertiary syphilitic ulceration of the scalp. 15 Mar 1894

Credit: St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives & Museum, Wellcome Images

Via thechirurgeonsapprentice

Fracture of a single bone trabeculum in osteoporosis [en]

fredag den 11. oktober 2013

Fracture of a single bone trabeculum in osteoporosis (16x).

By Michael J. Klein, M.D., Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York.

Source: www.microscopyu.com

A Rare Case of Skeletal Fluorosis Due to Excessive Tea Drinking [en]

fredag den 29. marts 2013

A 47-year-old Michigan woman developed a bone disease rarely seen in the U.S. after she drank a pitcher of tea made from at least 100 tea bags daily, for 17 years, researchers report.

The Detroit woman visited the doctor after experiencing pain in her lower back, arms, legs and hips for five years.

X-rays revealed areas of very dense bone on the spinal vertebrae and calcifications of ligaments in her arm, said study researcher Dr. Sudhaker D. Rao, a physician at Henry Ford Hospital who specializes in endocrinology and bone and mineral metabolism.

The researchers suspected the woman had skeletal fluorosis, a bone disease caused by consuming too much fluoride (a mineral found in tea as well as drinking water).

The patient’s blood levels of fluoride were four times higher than what would be considered normal, the researchers said.

Skeletal fluorosis is endemic in regions of the world with naturally high levels of fluoride in drinking water, including some parts of India and China, but is rare in Europe and North America. (Low levels of fluoride are added to drinking water in the United States to prevent cavities, but aren’t high enough to cause fluorosis.)

Rao said the patient was originally referred to him because her doctors suspected she had cancer, which can also show up on an X-ray as areas of dense bone. But because Rao had seen cases of skeletal fluorosis in his native India, “I was able to recognize it immediately,” he said.

Excess fluoride is typically eliminated from the body by the kidneys, Rao said. But if one consumes a lot of it, as this patient did through tea drinking, over time, the fluoride forms crystal deposits on bone, Rao said.

A few other cases of skeletal fluorosis caused by tea drinking have been reported in the United States. In these cases, patients typically drank a gallon of tea a day, Rao said. Rao and colleagues instructed their patient to stop drinking tea, after which she experienced an improvement in symptoms. The fluoride deposits will gradually go away as the bone remodels (or repairs) itself, a process that occurs frequently in the body, Rao said.

A description of the case was published March 21 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

(Source: Yahoo! via fuckyeahforensics)

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) [da]

lørdag den 16. februar 2013

A 'Spine Lecture' I found on YouTube by Spiro Antoniades, M.D.

I am sure that in the future you will here more of DISH here on the blog!

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a spondyloarthropathy also known as Forestier's disease and ankylosing hyperostosis. It is a noninflammatory disease, with the principal manifestation being calcification and ossification of spinal ligaments and the regions where tendons and ligaments attach to bone (entheses). The whole spine may be involved, and bony ankylosis occurs, although the disc spaces and facet joints remain unaffected. In advanced stages, the disease may look like melted candle wax. The calcification and ossification is most common in the right side of the spine. In people with dextrocardia and situs inversus this calcification occurs on the left side, which confirms the role of the descending thoracic aorta in preventing the physical manifestations of DISH on one side of the spine. (Wikipedia)

Leprogenic odontodysplasia [da]

tirsdag den 29. januar 2013

New Open Access Article: Vítor M.J. Matos & Ana Luísa Santos: Leprogenic odontodysplasia: new evidence from the St. Jørgen’s medieval leprosarium cemetery (Odense, Denmark)

Leprogenic odontodysplasia
Leprogenic odontodysplasia

The old cemetary belonging to the leprosy hospital here in Odense was excavated between 1980 and 1981. It was in use from 1270 to 1560. The 1544 skeletons from the cemetary are stored at our anthropological department (ADBOU) at the University of Southern Denmark. A wonderful collection of approx. 15,000 primarily medieval skeletons.

You can see pictures of a mother and her unborn child, also from St. Jørgen’s leprosarium in Odense here.

Severe rotoscoliosis with gibbus deformity [da]

mandag den 28. januar 2013

Severe rotoscoliosis with gibbus deformity

35 Y/O male with congenital spinal anatomical abnormalities (kyphosis and scoliosis due to formation and segmentation failure). This deformity exaggerated with trauma at childhood.

The left scoliotic curve is angular and the kyphosis is extreme (Gibbus deformity). Bone detail is characteristically confused at the deformity. Multiple formation and segmentation failures with old collapse and compression fractures are noted at T11-L1 levels. Severe rotational deformity also is seen. Spinal canal is narrowed at the angle of the deformity.

A Diaphyseal Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Involving Radius [da]

mandag den 28. januar 2013

A Diaphyseal Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Involving Radius

This is one of the rare presentations of the giant cell tumor of bone, a lesion that can be rather difficult to deal with even in its typical form. It is normally seen at the ends of the long bones and it is purely lytic (radiolucent) in most cases.

The above example is accompanied by secondary aneurysmal bone cyst and prominent periosteal new bone formation making a radiological diagnosis almost impossible. Microscopy (apart from the presence of too much osteoid) was typical, however. The patient, a 50-year-old man, had no lesions in the other bones.

Source: Medical School

Acute Osteomyelitis – Historically known as “Bone Fever” [da]

fredag den 28. december 2012

Via biomedicalephemera:

Acute Osteomyelitis

Osteo-: Bone
-myelo-: Marrow
-itis: Fever

Top: Acute supperative osteomyelitis in femur - note the purulent cavities and pus-filled medullary canal at A, B, and C. In this case, the epiphysis (E) and conjunctive cartilage (D) are uninfected.

Center Left: Acute osteomyelitis of tibia, cicatrices showing common position of sinuses in bone.

Center Right: Acute epiphysial separation due to osteomyelitis following typhoid fever.

Bottom: Early stage of acute osteomyelitis in tibia. Note site “A” - where the infection passed from the periosteum to the interior of the bone. The articular cartilages (C) are sodden with pus from the infected joint.

Acute osteomyelitis is most commonly seen in children and those with diabetes. It is rarely “spontaneous” - the bacteria that infect the subperosteum and marrow have to be introduced into the bloodstream somehow, and there is usually a known source.

Systemic infection or traumatic injury are the most common ways that bacteria (today, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus) can get to the bones. Historically, scarlet fever (caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes) and typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi) were known to cause a large number of osteomyelitis cases in their wake.

When children develop osteomyelitis, the long bones of the body (the femur, humerus, etc.) are most often affected, whereas the spine and pelvis are most commonly affected in adults. This is because there is much greater bloodflow to the growing long bones in kids, and as such there’s much more opportunity for bacteria in the blood to infect the site.

Early symptoms of what used to be called “bone fever” are fever and bone pain (as one might assume), as well as local warmth and swelling, and an overall malaise. The bone infection usually presents after a patient appears to have recovered from a disease or wound, as it takes several days to become established enough to cause symptoms. Later on, if left untreated, extreme pain and open, often purulent, wounds above the infection may occur, as the bacteria bore canals through the affected bones.

Without treatment, osteomyelitis can lead to sepsis, complete breakdown of affected bones, or gangrene. When the epiphysis is affected by the infection, growth of that bone can be significantly stunted.

Today, the condition is usually treated with long-term, high-dosage, IV antibiotic therapy. If it’s not caught at the start of the infection, debridement of the bone (removing the infected tissue) may be required, and in extreme cases, bone resection (cutting out an entire chunk of infected bone) or amputation may be required. Prior to antibiotics, resection was the most common cure.

Source: Diseases of the Bones, their pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Thomas Jones, 1887.

[da]

fredag den 2. november 2012

THE INFANT SMALLPOX VICTIM

Name: Unknown
Age: about nine months

Smallpox was so prevalent in the 18th century that diarist Samuel Pepys described it as being ‘as common as eating or swearing’.

It accounted for around ten per cent of all deaths, among them that of this nine-month-old baby.

The case had to be severe in order to affect the bones, and for this poor mite it clearly was, as you can see its legacy in the swelling around the elbow joint.

Source: Dead men do tell tales: Skeletons reveal the secrets of their owners’ tormented lives (Mail Online, 29 July 2008)