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Arkiv for kategorien ‘Medicinens historie’

Toothworms [en]

fredag den 11. oktober 2013

Toothworms

An 18th century hand-illustrated page from an Ottoman Turk dental book showing a molar infected with toothworms. As early as Babylonian times and lasting well into the eighteenth century, it was thought that a toothache was caused by worms. (The theory was disproved by Jacob Christian Schaffer in 1757.) These worms were depicted in art as dwelling with the demons of Hell and feeding upon the sinners. In a cavity on one side of the bisected tooth, Lucifer watches as two worms devour and entrap their victims. In the other half of the tooth, demons lord over a collection of human skulls.

Via Moshita

Macabre public health campain [en]

søndag den 29. september 2013

Advertisement for Atabrine, anti-malaria drug, in Papua, New Guinea during WWII.

Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mepacrine

Four methods of trepanation demonstrated on a single human skull [en]

søndag den 29. september 2013

Dr. Thomas Wilson Parry (1866-1945) owned this particular skull, which he used to perform practical research on trepanation. He performed roughly 50 trepanation experiments on the skulls of the more and less recent deceased, using in this case a shark’s tooth, a flint-pointed bow drill, a flint scraper, and obsidian to achieve the variety of holes. Parry published Trephination of the Living Human Skull in Prehistoric Times in 1923, and an amusing ballad about the practice in 1918.

Read more here.

Skull used for practicing trephining [da]

tirsdag den 16. april 2013

This skull fragment, found in a London Hospital cemetery, had clearly been used by medical students to practice trephining, or the drilling of holes in the skull to relieve intracranial pressure in cases of skull fracture, and to treat other ailments.

Source: Kate Ravilious: Haunt of the Resurrection Man: A forgotten graveyard, the dawn of modern medicine, and the hard life in 19th-century London

Drug jar for mercury pills, Italy, 1731-1770 [en]

tirsdag den 26. marts 2013

The mercury pills that were once in this jar are quite likely to have been made to a recipe developed by Augustin Belloste (1654-1730), which was famous throughout Europe. Mercury was the traditional remedy for syphilis and the demand for Belloste’s recipe made his pills very successful. The family became rich from the profits. The recipe remained a secret and was still available in the early twentieth century. The pills were also used to treat gout, and kidney and bladder stones. Unfortunately, the mercury in the pills slowly poisoned the patients.

Prosthetic nose used by a a woman with syphilis (19th cent.) [da]

lørdag den 16. februar 2013
Prosthetic nose (19th cent.)
Prosthetic nose (19th cent.)

We don’t know much about her. We don’t even know her name. What we do know is that the woman who wore the above prosthetic lost her nose in the middle of the 19th century due to a raging case of syphilis.

Read more on Lindsey Fitzharris' wonderful blog The Chirurgeon's Apprentice: "Syphilis: A Love Story"

Transplant Patient Penny Holds Her Heart In Her Hands [da]

mandag den 28. januar 2013

Penny

After surviving cancer and and crippling heart failure, Penny is literally holding her heart in her hands. According to her friend Kelsey, this photo was taken before the heart was cremated so Penny could take it home as a souvenir

This is truly an amazing photo: Fifty years ago only hardly any thought a photo like this would pe possible! Hats off to the many doctors and scientists that has made life saving operations like heart transplantations possible.

The first heart transplantation was performed by Christiaan Barnard in South Africa on December 3, 1967. The patient Louis Washkansky survived the operation and lived for 18 days. The prognosis for heart transplant patients has increased since then, and as of June 5, 2009, the survival rates were:

  • 1 year : 88.0% (males), 86.2% (females)
  • 3 years: 79.3% (males), 77.2% (females)
  • 5 years: 73.2% (males), 69.0% (females)

Let’s hope that Penny will have a long and happy life: The prognosis is getting better day for day.

Christian 5’s forordning om Medicis oc Apotecker &c (1672) [da]

fredag den 4. januar 2013

I 1672 udstedte Christian 5 Danmarks første læge- og apotekerlov, som adskilte de to erhverv og fastlagde bestemmelser for medicinalfremstilling og -prissætning.

Christian 5's forordning, side 1 Christian 5's forordning, side 2 Christian 5's forordning, side 3
Christian 5's forordning, side 4 Christian 5's forordning, side 5 Christian 5's forordning, side 6
Christian 5's forordning, side 7 Christian 5's forordning, side 8 Christian 5's forordning, side 9

Forordning
om
Medicis oc Apotecker &c.

Vi Christian dend Femte aff Guds Naade / Konge til Danmarck oc Norge / De Wenders oc Gothers / Hertug udi Slesvig / Holsten / Stormarn oc Dytmersken / Greffve udi Oldenborg oc Delmenhorst. Giøre alle vitterligt / at Vi allernaadigst [h]affver for got eracted / en vis Forordning at lade udgaa hvoreffter Medici, udi hvis Medicinæ praxin angaar / oc samptlige Apoteckerne / saavit dennem vedkomme kand / her i Voris Riger oc Lande / sig / indtil Vi anderledis derom tilsigendis vorder / skulle hafve at rette oc forholde.

1. De som begierer at practicere udi nogen Bye eller Sted / i begge Vore Riger oc Lande / eller sig for Medicinæ Doctoribus udgiffve / skulle ey antagis eller tilstedis af practicere eller for Medicinæ Doctoribus eller Licentiatis passere, førend de haffver sig hos Facultatem Medicam i Voris Residentz Stad Kiøbenhaffn angiffvet oc fremvist deris rictige Testimonia Promotionis legitimæ, dog hermed icke at forstaae de Medici, som Vi selff til Voris egen Tieniste oc Opvartning allernaadigst antager.

2. Voris egne indfødde oc Undersaatte skulle hereffter /saa frembt de ville i disse Riger oc Lande for Medicinæ Doctoribus ansees / oc tilstedis at practicere eller i andre maader forfremmis / tage Gradum Doctoratus in Medicina i Vor Universitet i Kiøbenhaffn. Oc paa det ingen enten Fremmed eller Indfød sig skulle undskylde med for store Omkostninger / da skal det være en hver Candidato tilladt / gradum Doctoratus in Medicina at tage in Collegio Academico om hand det begierer / for Omkostning at spare / heller end i Vor Frue Kircke effter Fundatzen; Oc skal Facultas Medica saa moderere sumptus promotionis at de icke offvergaar halfftrediesin[d]styffve Rixdaler / deposito Academico der i beregnit / dog Fundatzen helles i andre Maader uforkrencket.

3. Desom i saa Maader ere legitimè promoti Medici, skulle alleene haffve magt offver alt i Vore Riger oc Lande huor deris Hielp behøffvis oc begieris at practicere, consultere oc alt andet forrette / som denne deris Profession gemes er.

4. Ingen uden promoti Medici som før er meldet / maa tilstedis Medicamenta indvortis at exhibere eller forskriffve; Alle andre være sig Apoteckere / Bartskere / Chymister, Oculister, Brucksniedere/ Quacksalffvere / Empirici i huad Naffn de haffve kunde / Mænd eller Quinder / skulle sig derfra entholde / uden huis Vunddrick for Fald / Sticken Huggen / aff Badskerne indgiffvis / oc skal de saavelsom i andre udvortis farlige Skader / Medicus om hand tilstede er / consuleris, saafremt Badtskerne icke selff / for hvis Inconvenientier de[r]effter kommer / vil svare.

5. Medici skulle være tilforpligtede / hvert Aar tvende gange om behoff giøris / eller i det mindste endelig een gang strax effter Michaelis at visitere Apoteckerne/ saaledis at Facultas Medica i Kiøbenhaffn aff deris Societet tilforordner tvende / som i Byens Physici oc Practici ordinarii Nerværelse it hvert Apoteck visiterer, oc det som udøctigt er affskaffe / oc tilholder Apoteckerne / at de sig med tilhørige dyctige Vahre forsiuner / holder rigtig Vegt oc Maa[l] oc retter sig effter den Taxt som nu er / eller her efter bliffver sat / oc eftersom een deel Vare stige oc falde / skulle de med Apoteckerne forandre saadanne Varis Priis eftersom de stige oc falde. Ellers skulle de flitteligen holde offver Voris om Apoteckerne allernaadigst udgangne Forordning: Oc ville Vi at Apoteckerne med deris Svenne oc Tiennere skulle være Medicis approbatis, i det de paa deris Embede forrette / lydige / oc dennem ingen Gienstridighed der i beviise; I de andre Stæder skulle for[b]erørte indseende skee aff it hvert Steds Medicis approbatis eller om ingen er aff de nestværende /een eller fleere eftersom behoff giøris.

6. De skulle haffve flittig oc tilbørlig Om[s]org / at Staden med gode oc forfarne Jordemodere bliffver forseet / hvilcke oc aff dennem skal offverhøris oc underviises / førend de maa lade sig bruge / i de andre Stæder skal sligt skee aff Medicis approbatis loci eller de nestværende

7. Udi grasserende Pestilentze oc smitsomme Siugdomme / skulle Medici paa Apoteckerne en vis curam oc Remedie specificere oc anordne med en tilbørlig Taxt, saa een hver der med kand være tient / oc skulle Facultas Medica i Kiøbenhaffn i slig tilfald saadan Cur oc Anordning i Trøcken lade forferdige / paa det alle oc enhver sig dermed kunne betienne.

8. Alle Recepter som de udgiffve / skulle skriffvis med Dag oc Dato oc for hvem / oc naar noget Chymicum eller sterck Medicament forskriffvis / skulle de det icke med notis Chymicis, mens med fulde Ord udtryckeligen skriffve / paa det ald Vildfarelse hos Apoteckerne / oc Skade hos Patienterne kand forekommis.

9. Medici offver alt i Vore Riger oc Lande skulle Aarligen / eller oc ved ald forefalden Leilighed med Decano Facultatis i Kiøbenhaffn communicere hvis rart oc besynderligt in Remedica eller natural forefalder / hvilcket Decanus skal optegne in Actis Facultatis, posteriteten til Efterretning.

10. Hvad Medicorum Umage oc Opvartning hos patienterne angaar / da bør enhver derfor i det mindste at nyde efter høyloflig Ihukommelse Voris Elskel. kiere Her Farfaders CHRISTIANI qvarti Forordning dat: 20. Decemb.1619. Nemlig att hver patient for første gang fornøyis en halff Rixdaler / siden for hver gang de visiterer alleene Patienten uden nogen Recepts forfattelse een Rix Ort / naar de baade besøge oc skriffve Recept halffanden Rix Ort / naar de icke besøger / mens alleene skriffver en Recept en halff Rix Ort; Naar de Patienterne paa Landet besøger skal for hver Miil / den rette Vey / fornøyes trei Rix Ort / oc Vogn der foruden forskaffes / oc for hver Dag de sig hos Patienten forholde / Toe Rixdaler; Med de Fattige / som icke formaar at betale / skulle de eftersom deris Bestilling er oc Eed udkreffver sig forholde / oc ingen fattig Nødlidende deris Hielp vegre eller forsage.

11. Ingen maa nogensteds i begge voris Riger / Fyrstendomme oc Lande holde nogen Apotecke / uden de haffve der paa Voris Allernaadigste Bestallingsbreff oc aflagt til Os deris Eed / oc de som sig hereffter agter at nedsette oc holde Apoteck i nogen By eller Stæd i Vore Riger oc Lande / skulle førend de Voris Allernaadigste Bestallings Breff der paa bekommer / examineris aff Facultatis Medicæ Doctoribus oc Apoteckerne i Voris Residentz Stad Kiøbenhaffn / oc om de der til findis dygtige / skulle de derpaa tage et Attestatum som dennem uden Beta[l]ning skal meddeelis.

12. Apoteckerne skulle alleene bliffve ved deris Bestilling / oc hvercken selff eller ved deris Svenne befatte sig med praxi Medica eller Siuge at visitere, dog at ingen herved forbydis et in Medicina approberet oc ey farligt Medicamentum at meddeele en Patient, naar det begieris i de Kiøbsteder saa oc paa Landet / hvor ingen Medicus er eller saa snart bekommis kand / oc ald den stund de ingen anden Borgerlig Næring bruger / uden det Apotecket vedkommer / skulle Apoteckerne være fri oc forskaaned for alle Borgerlige oc Byes Bestillinger sampt Indqvartering; Oc naar nogen Apotecker ved Døden affgaar / skal hans efterlatte Encke oc Børn blifve ved Apotecket oc nyde samme Friheder oc Benaadinger som tilforne; Dog skal den samme som Apotecket igien skal forestaa endten det er en af hans efterlatte Børn eller om Encken eller Børnene vilde tage sig en Provisorem examineris aff Facultate Medica oc Apoteckerne om hand bliffver dygtig der til erkiendt / oc giøre sin Eed.

13. Dersom nogen Apotecker i leffvendis Liff vilde tage nogen Provisorem, skal hand iligemaade aff Facultate Medica oc aff Apoteckerne tillige examineris oc derhos giøre sin Eed / saa oc helles for Apoteckeren sammesteds / at hand vil tienne hannem troligen oc flittig i hans Apoteck.

14. Een hver Apotecker skal altid haffve dygtige oc forfarne Svenne en eller fleere effter Fornødenhed / oc skulle de førend de annammis i Apotecket / fremvise deris rigtige Testimonia til Decanum Facultatis Medicæ eller Stads Physicum oc loffve dennem med Haand oc Mund / at deris Recepeter som aff Medicis approbatis præscriberis flitteligen oc troligen vilde præparere; Læredrengene skulle Apoteckerne tage aff Voris egne eller andre fremmede / som forstaar Latin, oc ald den stund de ere icke dygtige / maa dennem ingen Recepter eller Medicamenter som magt paa ligger alleene betrois at præparere.

15. Apoteckerne skulle altid haffve fal i deris Apoteck gode ferske u-forfalskede oc ey forliggene Simplicia oc Materialia, Item præparata oc composita aff alle slags som i it velbestilt Apoteck bør at være oc særdelis i dispensatorio Haffniensi er specificeret ingen gamle forliggene / udøctige eller forfalskede Vare hafve hos sig / bruge eller selge / oc som disse Lande med adskillige gode Vexte / Urter / Blomster oc Rødder ere aff Naturen begaffvede / skulle de hvert Aar effter Aarets visse Tider sig flitteligen erkyndige om en hver steds Plant oc Vext oc deroffver holde en Bog til Underretning. Oc skulle Apotecker-Drengene følge Professorem Botanicum, naar hand med sine Discipler gaar herbatum, dersom Tiden oc Leiligheden det ellers vil tilstede. Oc Skulle Apoteckerne holde deris Discipler der til / at det som i rette tide samlet er / kunde paa tilbørlige Steder tørris oc hver Slag for sig selff oplegge oc forvare at intet muulnis eller forderffvis / de skulle oc paa de Steder som det skee kand oc fornøden er / haffve deris egen Urtehauffve oc der udi plantas indigenas oc exoticas saa mange her voxe kand / det meeste mueligt er / oc saaledis disponere deris Huuse / at alting kunde komme paa sin tilbørlig Sted.

16. De skulle oc ingen præparata fra andre Steder forskriffve oc indføre / saasom aff Gemmis, lapidibus pretíosis, Perler / Coraller oc dislige meere / mens dennem u[-]præpareret indkiøbe / vel examinere oc selff præparere ey heller nogen spiritus minerales eller laborerede eller præparerede Medicamenta chymica eller composita aff hvad slags det være kand som icke oprigtig er oc Apoteckeren kunde haffve nogen Tvifl paa. Electunaria, fornemmeligen Theriaca, Mithridatium, opiata oc ellers andre store oc fornemme composita, skulle de ey præparere, uden at de simplicia i de tilforordnede Medicorum nerværelse ere rigtige dispenserede, examinerede oc miscerede, oc skulle de vasa, som samme composita bliffver forvaret udi aff der til forordnede Medico signeris oc ved Dag oc Datum paaskriffvis naar de ere dispenserede, oc naar bemelte Composita enten er affgangen eller bleffven for gammel / skulle paa ny forferdigis / signeris oc paaskriffvis / som forskreffvet staar.

17. Apoteckerne eller deris Svenne oc Tienere skulle icke annamme eller præparere, langt mindre selge nogen utilbørlige oc farlige Recepter til misstengte Personer / paa det der ved ingen Skade skal foraarsagis / mens hvis Recepter aff Medicis approbatis præscriberis skal Apoteckeren udi en der til forordnet Bog lade indskriffve oc naar Recepterne ere betalt skal Patienten samme hans Recepter in originali tillige med Regenskabet igien tilstillis.

18. Alle Apotecker udi Vore Riger oc Lande / skulle rette sig effter det dispensatorium som aff Facultatis Medicæ Doctoribus, effter Vor Allernaadigste Befaling er udi Trycken forferdiget / dog efftersom Pharmaceutice oc chymia formedelst daglig Erfarenhed oc disse Tiders curiositet merckeligen tiltager / skal samme Dispensatorium efter Leiligheden af Facultatis Medicæ Doctoribus forandris / augeris oc rettis. Apoteckerne skulle oc rette sig effter den Taxt som nu giort er/ med hvis som bliffver strax contant betalt / eller inden it Aars tid / dog efftersom samme materialiers Priis dagligen stiger eller falder / skulle Apoteckerne / paa det de uden Fortenchelse kunde bliffve de tilforordnede Medicis tilkiende giff[v]e de Vare som op oc nedstiger; Ellers skal Stads Physicus i Kiøbenhaffn oc Medici ordinarii i de andre Steder flitteligen sig erkyndige om de stigende oc faldende Varers Cour[s] til Amsterdam oc Franckfurt / paa det Taxten der paa effter Forandring kand rettis / den gemeene Mand til Nytte; Herimod skal Apoteckerne i alle andre Kiøbsteder / Kiøbenhaffn oc Christianshaffn / saa viit Viin angaar undtagne / være tillat holde oc selge alle slags Viin / Urter oc Speceri, ligesom Viinhandlerne og Urtekremmerne det haffver at selge / paa det at de dissbedre kunde holde Apotecket ved lige oc bliffve ved Taxten oc icke lide formeget Skade aff det som Aarligen forderffvis oc bortkastis / fornemmeligen paa de Steder / som liden Affgang er paa Medicin, dog at Voris Told oc Accise rettighed deraff tilbørligen effter Toldrullen erleggis.

19. Apoteckerne skulle ingen ophold giøre med Medicamenters præparation, mens det snariste mueligt er / Patienterne befordre / holde Apotecket aabe[n]t / søgnet oc helligt / Nat oc Dag / heldst naar de fornemmer nogen hastig smitsom eller haard Siugdom trenger / eller Qvinder at være i Barns Nød / oc skulle de selff eller en aff deris dygtigste Svenne i det mindste være altid tilstede baade udi Pest oc andre farlige smitsomme Siugdommers tider / hvilcke Gud Naadeligen affvende. Oc efftersom de fleeste Patienter icke betaler Medicamenterne med rede Penge / mens dennem i varende Siugdom paaborgen optager / hvortil Apoteckerne skal være for pligted / at lade forskreffne Medicamenter følge om end skiønt Pengene icke altid derfore medfølger / da dersom Patienter døer aff en eller anden Siugdom eller udi leffvendis Liff sit Gods opbiuder / eller Arff oc Gield fragaais / førend Betalingen skeer / skulle Apoteckerne effter rigtig Regenskab være berettiget oc haffve deris Betaling udi rede Penge; Mens dersom Penge icke er at bekomme / da aff de beste Vare / Gods eller Løssøre / som i Boen eller Sterboen findis / forud oc nest effter Børnepenge for alle andre Creditorer at skee udleg; Dog at bemelte Regenskaber icke ere ældre eller anderledis qvalificerede end Recessen formelder.

20. Distillerede Vand skal udi Glas eller Instrumenter som der til tienlig er / distilleris, mens decocta hvor Ædicke eller Acida tilkommer / skulle de icke i Kaaber eller Messing / mens i glasserede Leerkar berede eller andre Kar som dertil beqvemme ere.

21. Naar Apoteckerne tracterer eller handterer purgantia, vomitoria, Item Forgifft eller Skarpe materier, saa som Mercurium sublimatum, præcipitatum, hydra gyrum , arsenicum, antimonium, Vitriolum oc deslige / skulle de der til bruge sær oc synderlig Kar / Morterer / Spateler oc Sigter / saaledis at icke det eene kommer iblant det andet

22. Ingen Apotecker skal udi Apotecket offendtlig Fal holde Forgifft / mens sligt haffve i deris egne Giemme/ oc inden egne Laase oc der med sig i alle maader forholde effter Recessen, de skulle ey heller udgiffve nogen purgans eller vomitorium til misstengte Personer hvor ved Foster fordriffvis eller nogen fordærffvelig Skade paaføris kunde / Oc skal det under høyeste Straff være alle Materialister oc Urtekremmere / Fremmede eller Indvaanere formeent Arsenicum, Mercurium s[u]blimatum Fal at holde eller selge / uden til Apoteckerne alleene.

23. Offtbemeldte Apoteckere skulle ey effter egen tycke udi Medicorum Recepter substituere qvid proqvo, mens om mangel kunde være paa noget simplici eller composito aff det i Recepten findis / eller oc noget forekomme som enten er ulæselig eller tviflagtig / da skulle de det Medico præscribenti tilkiende gifve / at hand selff noget andet substituere oc sine Recepter forklare kunde.

24. Oc efftersom adskillige Siugdommer forekommer / som Patienterne ey gierne vilde haffve aabenbarede / oc dog aff Recepterne vel kand kiendis oc agtis / da skulle Apoteckerne sambt deris Svenne oc Tiennere saadant holde forborgen / oc ey det udsige eller aabenbare / med mindre nogen merckelig Fare var at befrycte / om det bleff fortiet.

25. Saalenge de Apotecker / som nu ere i Voris Residentz Stad Kiøbenhaffn u-straffeligen ere providerede med gode Vare oc Materialier, saa at Indvaanerne nocksom dermed kunde være betient oc forsiunet / oc ingen med Billighed der offver kunde haffve at klage / skal det / indtil paa videre Allernaadigste Anordning / forbliffve ved det Tal / som nu her i Staden er / oc ey fleere Apotecke her sammesteds tilstedis / de nu værende til Affbreck oc betryck / mens skulle noget Apoteck enten her i Kiøbenhaffn eller andensteds i Vore Riger oc Lande / komme i nogen merckelig Brøst oc Affgang ved Forsømmelse oc ond Siun / da skal Apeteckeren haffve forbrut sin Bestalling oc hans Apoteck casseris oc it andet i dets Sted igien oprettis.

26. It hvert Apoteck skal aarligen engang strax effter Michaelis visiteris, i Kiøbenhaffn aff tvende Facultatis Medicæ Doctoribus udi Stads Physici oc Practici ordinarii nerværelse / i de andre Byer oc Stæder aff Medicis approbatis, i Stæderne en eller fleere eller hvor ingen er aff de nestværende; Oc skal Apoteckerne for visitatoribus lade frembære / see oc examinere alle de species, Vare oc Medicamenter som i Apotecket ere / ingen deraff paa Lofte i Kieldere eller Huuse fordølge / mens oprigteligen paa deris gode Tro oc Samvittighed alt hvis paaeskis oc omspørgis / forklare. Dersom noget aff Visitatoribus agtis oc befindis u-døgtig / forliggen / gamel oc forgiemt / skulle de det foruden ald Gienstridighed affskaffe oc aldeelis cassere oc bortkaste; Hvis ellers befindis Brøst eller Mangel paa nogen Medicamenter oc andet / som letteligen forderfvis kand / skulle de det saa snart mueligt er rette oc erstatte / det skal oc uden den Aarlige visitation staa enhver Medico approbato frit for naar hand nogen Tvifl haffver at eftersee det samme hand agter at præscribere eller allerede præscriberet haffver / oc dette som i saadanne maader efterspørgis / skal hannem u-formeent fremviisis oc forklaris enten aff Apoteckerne selff eller deris Svenne.

27. Oc paa det aff at Apoteckerne kand di[ss] bedre holdis ved lige / skal hereffter ingen Medicus practicus maa tillige holde offendtlig Apoteck / mens enhver bliffve ved sin profession, dog skal det staa enhver approbato Medico friit for / selff at præparere oc for sine egne Patienter at bruge hvis sær oc besynderlig Medicamenter, som hand sig selff vil haffve forbeholden oc icke paa Apoteckene bekommis kand / mens Materialia skulle de kiøbe hos Apoteckerne oc ey andensteds fra f[o]rskrifve / om de ellers der er at bekomme.

28. Ingen Chirurgus maa under tilbørlig straff forordne eller selff præparere nogen Medicamenter for deris Patienter indvortis at bruge / uden alleene Vunddrick oc decocta som aff dennem brugis imod Franssøske Pocker / Gurgelvand oc hvad eigentlig til Chirurgi henhører / langt mindre forordne eller selff præparere for deris Patienter Purgantia, Vomitoria , Sudorifera, Pectoralia, Opiata, Cordialia &c. Oc skulle de kiøbe deris Medicamenta oc Species eller Materialer som de bruger til deris Chirurgie oc fra andre Steder skal haffvis aff Apoteckerne sammesteds oc dennem ingen andensteds fra forskriffve / hvor imod beneffnte Apoteckere / skulle forpligted være Bardtskerne gode Vare for en billig Priis oc end[t]en i liden eller stor Qvantitet ligesom det begieris / at forskaffe.

29. Ingen Laborant eller Distillator maa holde hemmelig eller aabenbar / nogen Apoteck eller præparere nogen Medicamenter som paa it velbeskicket Apotecke bør at præpareris enten at forsende eller selge til andre; Ey heller maa Materialister / Urtekremmere eller Suckerbagere oc deslige holde Fal oc selge til andre Theriacam, Mithridatium, Confectiones Officinales, Balsama, Ungventa, Emplastra, species &c. Pulveres compositos, Oleiteter, Item Slagvand Caneelvand / Modervand / Elixir vitæ Matthioli, Kinderbalsom oc andre saadanne dististillerede Van(d) / Item Brystkager / Violen oc Rosen Sirop oc andre Siruper oc deslige Medicamenter oc Materialier som eigentlig til Apotecket henhører.

30. Ingen Empiricus, Brucksnider / Oculist, Qvacksalver eller deslige Omløbere / Mand eller Qvinde maa holde hemmelig eller offentlig Fal nogle aff de Vare / enten det simplicia eller composita, Oleiteter, Theriac eller hvad Naffn de haffve kand / som henhører til Apotecket; Mens dersom nogen findis med slige Vare / Materialier oc Medicamenter som forbudet er / skulle samme Vare være forbrut / oc derforuden giffve Et Hundrede Rixdaler til Straff / hvor udaff den tredie Part til Os skal være forfalden / den anden tredie Part til Borgemestere oc Raad paa det Sted som saadant befindis / oc den Tredie Part til Apoteckeren der sammesteds / paa det at den farlig oc skadelig Missbrug at selge Medicamenter kand affskaffis. Thi biude oc befale Vi Voris Amptmænd / Præsidenter, Borgemestere oc Raad / Fogder oc alle andre som paa Vore Vegne haffver at giøre oc lade / tilbørlig Indseende at haffve / at alle oc eenhver tilholdis sig her efter Allerunderdanigst at rette oc forholde / saa at ingen Forhindring her imod skeer som forskreffvet staar under Straff som vedbør. Hvoreffter alle oc en hver Vedkommende sig allerunderdanigst haffver at rette. Ladendis det ingenlunde. Giffvet paa Vort Slot Kiøbenhaffn den 4. Decembr: Anno 1672.

Under Vort Signet

Christian.

“The procession of the cripples” [da]

fredag den 28. december 2012
The procession of the cripples by Hieronymus Bosch, 1500 (Albertina Museum, Vienna)
The procession of the cripples by Hieronymus Bosch, 1500 (Albertina Museum, Vienna)

In the article “Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516): Paleopathology of the Medieval Disabled and its Relation to the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010” (pdf) by Jan Dequeker, Guy Fabry and Ludo Vanopdenbosch (Isr Med Assoc J. 2001 Nov;3(11):864-71.) you can find what they believe to be most likely diagnosis for each of the persons in the drawing.

Cures against syphilis through history [da]

lørdag den 22. december 2012

From a paleopathological point of view syphilis is a wonderful disease since it is so easy to diagnose from the remaining bones. To the diseased however a much dreaded fate awaited: If the disease did not kill you the cure propably did. From early on mercury was used in an attempt to cure syphilis. This should come as no surprise since the application of the mercury had been used to treat skin conditions from the 1300’s. As early as in 1496 Giorgio Sommariva of Verona is reported to have used mercury against syphilis and in 1502 Jacob Carpensic should have made himself a fortune by using mercury as a treatment against the disease. In 1936 Paracelsus proclaimed that mercury was the only propper cure against syphilis.

The mercury was administered in various fashions, including by mouth, by rubbing it on the skin, and by injection. One of the more curious methods was fumigation, in which the patient was placed in a closed box with his head sticking out. Mercury was placed inside the box and a fire started under the box, causing the mercury to vaporize. It was a grueling process for the patient and the least effective for delivering mercury to the body.

In the sixteenth and seventeeth centuries German candidates for the doctor's degree were made to take an oath that they would under no conditions prescribe mercury for their patients.

In 1905, Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann discovered Treponema pallidum, the spiral shaped bacterial cause of syphilis. Researchers now had a target to use in a search for an even more effective therapy. One year later, the first effective test for syphilis, the Wassermann test, was developed.

As the disease became better understood, more effective treatments were found. An antimicrobial used for treating disease was the organo-arsenical drug Arsphenamine, developed in 1908 by Sahachiro Hata in the laboratory of Nobel prize winner Paul Ehrlich. The drug was originally called "606" because it was the sixth in the sixth group of compounds synthesized for testing; it was marketed by Hoechst AG under the trade name Salvarsan in 1910.

In 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered the anti-bacterial qualities of the mold penicillin, and the development of penicillin for use as a medicine is attributed to the Australian Nobel laureate Howard Walter Florey, together with the German Nobel laureate Ernst Chain and the English biochemist Norman Heatley. From the early 1940ies penicillin was mass-porduced and this led to a dramatic drop in the prevalence of syphilis as well as many other previously serious infectious diseases. It was introduced in a time when less than one out of every one hundred syphilis patients ever recovered. Penicillin is still used today to treat syphilis.

Mercurial cream
No. 1: Mercurial cream
  
Mercurous chloride tablets
No. 2: Mercurous chloride tablets
Salvarsan treatment kit
No. 3: Salvarsan treatment kit
  
Bottle of Salvarsan
No. 4: Bottle of Salvarsan

Photo No. 1: Mercurial cream used to treat syphilis, England, 1880-1941

Mercury was used as a common treatment for the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. Mercury had been a popular ‘cure’ for syphilis since the 1400s, although we now regard it as too toxic to use. The label reads "Made in accordance with the most recent formula as used by Col[onel] Lambkin, R.A.M.C." The R.A.M.C. stands for the Royal Army Medical Corps. In 1891 almost seven per cent of all medical discharges from the army were caused by venereal diseases and their effects. Venereal disease affected the health of soldiers who needed to be in top condition to face the enemy. Colonel Lambkin researched widely on syphilis and other STIs such as gonorrhoea, both in Britain and in the colonies of the British Empire.

Photo No. 2: Packet of mercurous chloride tablets, Kassel, Germany, 1914-1917

Mercurous chloride (HgCl) is also known as calomel. It was a popular drug from the 1800s onwards as it contained mercury, a chemical that was claimed to cure many illnesses. However, it slowly poisoned those who used it because mercury is toxic. Many of those taking such a drug would have been experiencing a venereal disease (VD) - probably syphilis. Calomel was used as an antiseptic and laxative during the First World War, but given the high rates of VD in the military it clearly proved useful in that context too. The packet contains calomel in tablet form to be taken orally. This packet was supplied by the 11th Army Corps of the German Army to its medical personnel and soldiers.

Photo No. 3: Salvarsan treatment kit for syphilis, Germany, 1909-1912

Salvarsan was a synthetic drug produced to treat the STI syphilis. The drug was developed by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), a German medical scientist, and his team in 1909 after three years of research. Ehrlich coined the phrase ‘magic bullet’ to describe this new wonder drug. The diluted yellow Salvarsan treatment was difficult and painful to inject and it did not cure syphilis overnight. As it was an arsenic based compound, it was also toxic. Salvarsan would later be replaced by antibiotics such as penicillin. The drug in the kit was made by a German manufacturer Farbwerke vorm Meister Lucius & Bruning AG and is stamped with the date "3 February 1912". It was sold by a British chemist, W Martindale, who added all the equipment to prepare injections.

Photo No. 4: Bottle of Salvarsan treatment for syphilis, London, England, 1909-1914

Salvarsan was a synthetic drug produced to treat the STI syphilis. The drug was developed by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), a German medical scientist and his team in 1909 after three years of research. German manufacturers had the monopoly on producing this wonder drug. With the outbreak of the First World War, British companies had to develop manufacturing techniques to supply the demand for Salvarsan. The only company with the capability to do so was Burroughs, Wellcome & Co. They produced Salvarsan under the brand name ‘Kharsivan’ from 1914 onwards.

Image source: sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/